Working Procedures


The available studies are summarized by the Working Group, with particular regard to the qualitative aspects discussed below.

Inclusion of a study does not imply acceptance of the adequacy of the study design or of the analysis and interpretation of the results, and limitations are clearly outlined in square brackets at the end of each study description. The reasons for not giving further consideration to an individual study also are indicated in the square brackets. Similarly, important aspects of a study that directly impinge on its interpretation are brought to the attention of the reader by the addition of a Working Group comment in square brackets.

Studies that are judged to be inadequate or irrelevant to the evaluation are generally omitted. They may be mentioned briefly: (i) when the information is considered to be a useful supplement to that in other reports; (ii) if they provide the only data available; or (iii) in exceptional cases, if they have been perceived as being pertinent by the scientific community but are deemed otherwise by the Working Group.

In exceptional cases, the Working Group may conduct additional analyses of the published data and use these in their assessment of the evidence.

The framework of a Handbook on screening includes the following sections.

1. Global burden and disease characteristics
2. Screening techniques
3. Availability and use of screening programmes
4. Efficacy of screening tests
5. Effectiveness of population–based screening
6. Summary
7. Evaluation


Updated 3 November 2015